List and description of the types of vertical restrictions subject to antitrust legislation. Is the concept of vertical restraint defined in the law of agreements? Between 2005 and 2014, the CMA/OFT published details of decisions (or other less important enforcement measures) of about two cases of vertical restrictions per year on average. In 2015, the CMA made a decision on Vertical Property Agent Services and closed the investigation with Hotel Online Bookings following the agreement reached by companies in other jurisdictions dealing with practices that were also important to the CMA. The CMA has also published open letters for three markets. In addition, the United Kingdom Railway Board, which is responsible at the same time as the CMA, has made end-of-regime commitments in one case (see question 16). This focus on RPM continued in 2016, with the publication of a report on vertical restrictions, two CMA decisions in May on tariff restrictions limiting online discounts and the launch in July of a project to track the use of MFN clauses in online hotel booking. Selective distribution can dismantle a retail market if it is practised by a sufficient proportion of producers. For example, if manufacturers of the most popular brands of a product have similar distribution agreements with their distributors (which means that relatively few retailers have the right to store the full range of popular brands), this may prevent unauthorized retailers from offering effective competition and thus give market power to licensed retailers. Studies of other types of vertical restrictions (for example. B MFNs, see question 2.23) are more often resolved by commitments.
The CMA has also begun to use the engagement procedure to obtain compensation for the NHS (see question 1.6). The CMA (and its predecessor, the OFT) conducted several investigations into vertical restrictions on the difference in processing between different types of Internet sales channels. In October 2012, the OFT launched a formal investigation into Amazon`s price parity clauses, which prevented sellers who used Amazon from offering lower prices on other online sales channels. (The OFT ended its investigation in November 2013 after Amazon announced that it would no longer use such price parity clauses in the European Union.) What are the legal sources of vertical restrictions on cartels and abuse of dominance? 2.1 At a high level, what is the concern and control of vertical agreements? Intellectual property rights do not play a major role in the CMA or in the UK`s assessment of vertical agreements. However, they have sometimes been discussed in RPM investigations in which suppliers revoke copyright authorization for resellers to use official product photographs on their websites, unless resellers comply with RPM rules (e.g. B light fittings (2017). The EU`s vertical guidelines for the CMA contain guidelines for “exclusive delivery,” which covers the situation in which a supplier agrees to supply only one buyer for resale or a specific use. The main anti-competitive consequence of these agreements is the potential lock-in of competing and non-competitive suppliers. Therefore, the buyer`s market share is the most important element in assessing these restrictions. In particular, negative effects can occur when the buyer`s market share in the downstream market and the upstream buying market is greater than 30%. However, if the market share held by buyers and suppliers is less than 30% and supply contracts are less than five years, these restrictions will benefit from the shelter created by the vertical class exemption.
Do specific rules or exceptions apply to the evaluation of anti-competitive agreements between companies operating at different levels of the supply chain in digital markets in your territory? If a party occupies a dominant position in a market on which the vertical agreement refers, the